General Aspects and Applications of Plant Genome Editing: Advancements in Recombinant Protein Production and Viral Vaccine Efficiency through CRISPR/Cas9-Edited N. benthamiana
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- Master’s theses (BioVit) 
The implementation of plant-based antigen manufacturing methodologies has accelerated vaccine research by providing a cost-effective, scalable, and safe alternative to traditional protein production systems. This master thesis provides an updated review of recent advances in plant-based protein production platforms, with an emphasis on recombinant proteins generated from CRISPR/Cas9 genome edited Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The first part of this review contains a brief utilization of the CRISPR technology in plant genome engineering, focusing on its advancements and challenges. The thesis includes an overview of various CRISPR applications in plant biology, a detailed assessment of recent advancements in transformation techniques, and an exploration of the challenges associated with sequencing in the context of genome editing. The second part focuses on the use of Nicotiana benthamiana as a model plant to produce recombinant proteins. This review examines the increases in immunogenicity achieved by these unique production platforms through a review of the most recent research. The review also covers the benefits of plant-based protein production platforms, such as cheaper production costs and faster response to emerging risks. The core findings show that plant-based antigen manufacturing methodologies can have an impact on existing protein production systems, potentially leading to the creation of improved vaccines with increased efficacy, safety, and accessibility. The review seeks to offer insights into the current state of research and prospects for using this plant for recombinant protein production, as well as discuss its wider impacts, implications, and future directions for vaccine development.