Endocrine-disrupting chemicals used as common plastic additives: Levels, profiles, and human dietary exposure from the Indian food basket
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionScience of the Total Environment. 2022, 810 . 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152200
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are the most widely used plastic additives in polymeric materials. These EDCs are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. Hence selected PAEs and BPA were investigated in twenty-five food types and drinking water (supply and packaged) from the metropolitan city, Delhi, and the peri-urban areas of a non-metropolitan city, Dehradun. Except cabbage and orange, the sum of thirteen PAEs (∑13PAEs) and BPA in all the other food types were significantly higher in Delhi over Dehradun (p < 0.01). Highest mean ∑13PAEs (665 ng/g) and BPA (73 ng/g) were observed in cottage cheese and potatoes, respectively followed by fish (PAEs - 477 ng/g, BPA - 16 ng/g). Supply water from the west zone of Delhi was found to contain the highest concentration of BPA (309 ng/L) and ∑13PAEs (5765 ng/L) with the dominance of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Based on the compositional profile and compound-wise principal component analysis, environmental contamination and food processing were attributed as significant sources of most priority PAEs in food samples. Di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was over 100-fold higher in the bottled water from local brands than composite bottled water samples. Packaging material was identified as a source for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in packaged food. This study observed the highest estimated daily dietary intake (EDI) in the high-fat-containing food products viz., cottage cheese, and fish from north Delhi. High bioaccumulation of BPA can be a possible reason for elevated EDI in vegetables and local fish of Delhi. Unlike Dehradun, EDI for ∑13PAEs and BPA was slightly higher for the non-vegetarian adult when compared to the vegetarian adult. DEHP and DnBP exhibited the highest estimated estrogenic potential for bottled water from local brands. Dietary exposure due to six priority PAEs contamination in food stuffs was two to four-fold higher in Delhi than Dehradun for adult man and woman.