RippleNet: A Recurrent Neural Network for Sharp Wave Ripple (SPW-R) Detection
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Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SPW-R) have been identified as key bio-markers of important brain functions such as memory consolidation and decision making. SPW-R detection typically relies on hand-crafted feature extraction, and laborious manual curation is often required. In this multidisciplinary study, we propose a novel, self-improving artificial intelligence (AI) method in the form of deep Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) with Long Short-Term memory (LSTM) layers that can learn features of SPW-R events from raw, labeled input data. The algorithm is trained using supervised learning on hand-curated data sets with SPW-R events. The input to the algorithm is the local field potential (LFP), the low-frequency part of extracellularly recorded electric potentials from the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The output prediction can be interpreted as the time-varying probability of SPW-R events for the duration of the input. A simple thresholding applied to the output probabilities is found to identify times of events with high precision. The reference implementation of the algorithm, named ‘RippleNet’, is open source, freely available, and implemented using a common open-source framework for neural networks (tensorflow.keras) and can be easily incorporated into existing data analysis workflows for processing experimental data.