Mild to Moderate Iodine Deficiency and Inadequate Iodine Intake in Lactating Women in the Inland Area of Norway
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionNutrients. 2020, 12 (3), . 10.3390/nu12030630
Breastfed infants are dependent on an adequate supply of iodine in human milk for the production of thyroid hormones, necessary for development of the brain. Despite the importance of iodine for infant health, data on Norwegian lactating women are scarce. We measured iodine intake and evaluated iodine status and iodine knowledge among lactating women. From October to December 2018, 133 mother–infant pairs were recruited in a cross-sectional study through two public health care centers in Lillehammer and Gjøvik. Each of the women provided two human milk specimens, which were pooled, and one urine sample for analysis of iodine concentration. We used 24-h dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate short-term and habitual iodine intake from food and supplements. The median (P25, P75) human milk iodine concentration (HMIC) was 71 (45, 127) µg/L—of which, 66% had HMIC <100 µg/L. The median (P25, P75) urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 80 µg/L (52, 141). The mean (± SD) 24-h iodine intake and habitual intake was 78 ± 79 µg/day and 75 ± 73 µg/day, respectively. In conclusion, this study confirms inadequate iodine intake and insufficient iodine status among lactating women in the inland area of Norway and medium knowledge awareness about iodine.