Local pollen analysis in a boreal forest setting : vegetation and land-use history at the summer farm Finnerudseter in south-eastern Norway
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- Master's theses (INA) 
Traditional cultural landscapes are threatened in Europe due to changed land-use practices. However, the historical extent of this human land-use practice is not yet fully known. This thesis describes the vegetation history and human land-use at the summer farm Finnerudseter located in Nordmarka, the forested area north of Oslo. Historical documents states that the human land-use goes back to AD 1600 at this summer farm. However, extensive human landuse at Finnerudseter most likely predates AD 1600, and pollen and charcoal from a small forest hollow situated near Finnerudseter were analysed to reconstruct the local vegetation history at the site. The aims of the study was to document the general vegetation history, and to estimate in how long time and to what extent human land-use have taken place at Finnerudseter. The period investigated covered the vegetation history at the site from c. 2587 to 1334 cal. yr. BP (cal. yr., and all following dates are also presented as cal. yr.). Based on the results from the pollen count, the vegetation history was divided into 4 vegetation zones. Zone I Pinus period (c. 2587–2452 BP); Zone II Betula–Pinus–Alnus period (c. 2425–2237 BP); Zone III Betula–Pinus–Alnus–Picea period (c. 2183–1779 BP); Zone IV Picea–Betula period (c. 1630–1334 BP). Pinus was the dominant tree species from c. 2587–2452 BP. In addition, Picea established locally at the site during this period, c. 2479 BP. A local fire c. 2452 BP led to a shift in the tree species composition with a reduction in Pinus and increase in the pioneer trees Betula and Alnus. The finding of a single pollen from Cerealia may indicate small-scale cultivation c. 2425 BP. Small-scale livestock grazing seem to have been present from c. 2290 BP. Picea increased in amount c. 2183 BP, and the varying presence from c. 2183 to 1779 BP seem to be due to further forest clearing and human land-use. Picea became the dominant tree species c. 1630 BP, at the same time as human impact at Finnerudseter increased. The results clearly showed that human impact at Finnerudseter predated AD 1600 and probably started already in the Early Iron Age. However, there is gap from c. 1334 BP to 350 PB (AD 1600), which has not been investigated in this thesis, further research is therefore needed to get a more complete vegetation history at the summer farm Finnerudseter.