Cloning and characterization of effector genes from the strawberry crown rot pathogen Phytophthora cactorum
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- Master's theses (IPM) 
Effectors play important roles in plant-microbe interaction, they manipulate host cell structure and function, thereby facilitating infection sometimes also triggering defense responses. Four candidate effector genes from strawberry crown rot pathogen Phytophthora cactorum were selected for full length cloning. One transglutaminase gene and phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase gene were cloned. This transglutaminase is from a gene family and contains PEP-13 motif, which was Ca2+ dependent and predicted important for both transglutaminase and elicitor activity. The function of this protein was predicted as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and the structure of sequence predicted it is cell wall protein, working as cross-linking proteins, or cell-cell adhesion proteins. Phytophthora transglutaminase can be defined as apoplastic effector, so further study was carried on this gene. The gene expression pattern of this gene shows that this transglutaminase gene is hyphae specific expression gene, which also support it is the cell wall protein.