Comparison of solid waste management between Oslo (Norway) and Lahore (Pakistan)
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The research is devised on two themes as; describe and compare solid waste management practices in Lahore (Pakistan) and Oslo (Norway). Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an important technique in the present times which works on the philosophy of Reuse, Reduce and Recycle and helps in containment of various environmental problems. In the developing countries waste contamination has become an important problem. My prime motive to select Lahore was due to the nature of environmental contamination leading to nondisposal of solid waste. The study is aimed to take cognizance of successful waste management practices in Oslo and its replication in Lahore. However, in Oslo solid waste management has been defined scientifically at three levels; generation; collection; treatment. Waste management has been practised in Oslo since a decade and has created a benchmark for other cities to follow. The methodology for research is premised on qualitative tools. The study is based on secondary sources, for example published government reports, data and other relevant information from official websites dealing with solid waste management. The secondary data sources in the case of SWM have been able to provide a better understanding in the case of Lahore and Oslo and provided us with a detailed insight into the progress and shortcoming in both cities. We may not be able to draw commonalities on the operational front between Oslo and Lahore, but Lahore has a lot to learn from the operations in Oslo. No doubt the number of population and quantity of waste generated in Oslo is far less then Lahore but Oslo is recycling 33% of total waste and strives to reach to more than 50 % until 2014. Besides, Lahore has recycled merely 21% of the total generated waste. This is due to lack of technological facilities around 50% waste left over in streets of Lahore, whereas Oslo solid waste management collection rate is almost 100%. In case of Lahore, bio-degradable waste from one town is processed to convert fertilizer compared to the rest of six towns, the rest of municipal waste is dumped in various dumping sites creating more havoc to the human as well as animal species and ultimately harming the environment. Besides in Oslo all municipal waste treated in an organized manner. In Oslo people feel confident to pay for waste facilities because of awareness and knowledge and also due to higher socio-economic norms, but in Lahore people are reluctant to accept rules because of poor knowledge, nonfunctional corrupt institutions. The technical advancement of Oslo is a learning experience for Lahore having said that the latter has to tread fathom miles in order to make their solid waste iv management functional. There are plethora of regulations at the federal level which impact the management and disposal of municipal solid waste in Pakistan. But application of these laws is still far from becoming a reality for the country. The lack of interest from government and local bodies has hampered advancement of solid waste management as a practice. On the other side, in Norway central government provides general instructions for law enforcement and the people at municipality level are empowered to decide about making their surroundings a clean greener and healthy place to live. Meanwhile, in Pakistan there are best of legislation in place to devise mechanism for solid waste management but at the implementation stage across the country. Lahore needs to inculcate the idea of providing environmental education at school level so that when the young children grow up and enter local or federal decision making bodies they have sensitivity towards conservation and sustainability of the environment.