Who Benefits from Production Outcomes? Gendered Production Relations among Climate-Smart Agriculture Technology Users in Rural Ethiopia
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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OriginalversjonRural Sociology. 2019, 84 (4), 799-825. 10.1111/ruso.12263
The use of agricultural technologies is generally expected to increase production and household incomes. Gendered disparities in making use of agricultural outcomes could result in inequitable agricultural develop-ment. However, too little is known about whether the use of agricultural tech-nologies improves gendered production relations, particularly in the Global South. This study investigates the question of gender-equitable production relations by drawing on empirical data from women and men smallholders involved in conservation agriculture and small-scale irrigation schemes in three study areas in Ethiopia. Findings show that the use of agricultural tech-nologies does not improve unequal gendered production relations; rather, gender norms that exist within patriarchal social structures continue to influ-ence production relations in at least three ways. First, societal norms restrict women from asserting their self-interest in gendered bargaining. Second, there is a customary law in all the study areas that allows men (but not women) to inherit land—thus providing men with better bargaining and decision-making positions over production outcomes, as they bring land to the mar-riage. Third, the restricted access of women to rural institutional services further contributes to unequal gendered production relations, as these ser-vices support men more than women in the use of agricultural technologies for enhanced production.