Gendered constraints for adopting climate-smart agriculture amongst smallholder Ethiopian women farmers
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonScientific African. 2020, 7 1-12. 10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00250
Although Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) can offer economic and food security opportunities for women farmers, success in the uptake of these technologies is contested by gendered constraints. Previous studies that use the household head as a unit of analysis to explain adoption patterns do not adequately demonstrate the extent to which women smallholders are restricted by gendered constraints. This study uses 344 women and men survey respondents involved in conservation agriculture (CA) and small-scale irrigation schemes (SSIS) as data sources for examining the effect of gendered constraints for adopting climate-smart agriculture amongst women in three areas in Ethiopia. Qualitative and quantitative data collections were applied using survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square test and binary logistic regression using statistical software for the social sciences (SPSS) version 24. Thematic and narrative analysis methods were used to analyze qualitative data. The findings show that women smallholders uptake is affected by limited access to credit, extension, restricted membership in cooperatives and water user associations, lack of access or user rights to land, skill training, information, and restricted mobility. Agricultural development interventions should be implemented by accepting and considering individual farmer's entitlement to development. Expanding off-farm diversification and rural employment opportunities through changing the land tenure system, which is currently state-owned, are essential to enhance women smallholders’ access to land and other agricultural inputs.