The civil society-state relations in China reflected through the genetically modified rice debate
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This study examines the civil society-state relationship in China through the debates on genetically modiﬁed rice. Due to the various types of civil society organizations and groups, this thesis take environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) as the primary research objectives. As the forerunner of the anti-GM campaigns, ENGOs played significant role in promoting public participation into environmental governance. By examining how these organizations mobilize adherents and obtain resources through strategic framing, it concludes the role and characteristics of ENGOs in China. Furthermore, through the analysis of the relational and functional aspects of ENGOs, this study attempt to describe their contributions on the emergence of pluralistic civil society and the state-society relations. Rather than stick to the relatively static western concept of civil society, this study acknowledge the embedded complexity within the socio-political context in China. Apart from the concept of civil society and strategic framing theory, this thesis use institutional theory to account for the dynamics of organizations and the relations between civil society and the state.