Factors contributing to human injuries and fatalities inflicted by brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Russia, 1932-2017
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- Master’s theses (MINA) 
In this thesis, I have compiled, summarized, and reviewed 322 cases of people killed and injured by brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Russia from 1932 to 2017. The focus was primarily on 256 bear-induced human casualties recorded between 1991 and 2017, because data availability varied between the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. I found that the annual number of human-bear incidents was positively associated with the area of forests burned annually and with the increase in the brown bear population, despite varying estimates of the bear population size during the study period. Between 1991 and 2017, bear-caused injuries and fatalities occurred more frequently on the Russian Pacific Coast (111 incidents) and in Siberia (104 incidents) than in European Russia (41 incidents), which had higher human density and fewer bears. Single bears were involved in most of the incidents (73%). Casualties occurred mainly during daytime and especially in summer and autumn. Human activities appeared to lead, directly or indirectly, to bear-caused human injuries and fatalities; in 182 incidents with documented probable causes bears most often attacked when provoked (41%), surprised (18%), and when bears preyed or attempted to prey upon humans (17%). During 1932-1990, hunters and outdoor workers were the main categories attacked by bears. Between 1991 and 2017, people who gathered wild resources and hiked were injured or killed more frequently in bear attacks. I emphasize the importance of educational programs where people can learn about bear biology and habits, better management of human activities in bear country, systematical collection of data on bear population dynamics, and preservation of bear habitat in order to minimize human-bear conflicts in Russia and elsewhere.