Rural-urban youth migration and informal self-employment in Ethiopia
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Rural-urban migration has been historically low in Ethiopia. But recent years have seen a surge in all parts of Ethiopia. This is partly related to access to agricultural land in rural areas. Access to farm land is a constitutional right to village residents of Ethiopia, but it has become difficult to fulfill this right for the young generation because of increasing land scarcity. At the same time, the rapid expansion of urban centers with better education, technology and other basic social services attract youth to towns and cities in search for better livelihoods. Empirical studies in the migration literature indicate that migration is often welfare improving for the migrant. But it is also possible that youth migrants become more susceptible and less competitive in urban areas because of lower endowment in education, experience, financial capital and social network. This report examines the experience of youth migrants, their challenges and opportunities using three sets of data that enable a mapping of youth migration from rural villages to the urban centers in Ethiopia.