Food aid in protracted crisis : the humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Basin
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Recent findings suggest the world is becoming less peaceful. We are now experiencing more violent conflicts and consequently, more humanitarian suffering. Over the last decades, an increasing number of conflicts have been defined as protracted. Protracted crises can last for years, leading to a long-term disruption of livelihoods and food security. The international humanitarian community acknowledges that protracted crises require a deeper understanding and attention. They are substantially different from acute emergencies, which dictates a different approach in terms of aid interventions. Moreover, they usually occur in fragile states where government authorities fail to protect their citizens from humanitarian suffering. As a result, humanitarian interventions seeking to improve food security in protracted conflicts in fragile settings need to take an integrated approach. They must combine short-term relief with long-term solutions in order to facilitate a transition out of protracted crisis and towards peace, development and long-term food security. This thesis is literature study using secondary sources to analyzes the food aid interventions implemented in the Lake Chad Basin by the principal UN agencies for food security and aid, mainly World Food Programme (WFP) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The current humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Basin is characterized as the most neglected of all current crises. Furthermore, it is a complex crisis occurring in a fragile conflict setting. Located in West-Central Africa, Lake Chad borders to Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon. It is considered one of the poorest and most drought-prone areas in the world. For that reason, underlying issues of ethnicity, religion, and political instability characterize the management of the area. Lately, the area has mostly been associated with the Boko Haram insurgency beginning in 2009. As a result, it is now one of the biggest displacement crisis exposed to violent conflict. Needless to say, the humanitarian needs are tremendous. Therefore, this is a situation where humanitarian operations must address underlying causes in a complex situation in order to facilitate a path to recovery and stability.