Factors affecting optimal use of urine diverting pit latrines from a user perspective : a case study from Darechowk VDC, Nepal
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- Master's theses (IMV) 
Almost half of the world’s population lack access to improved sanitation facilities. Thus, appropriate sanitation technologies are urgently needed. Nepal inhabits a large population without access to any sanitation facility, and continuously strives to ensure 100% sanitation coverage nationwide through different strategies, policies and approaches. Urine diverting pit latrines, introduced as ecological sanitation, is one approach to achieve the goal of eliminating open defecation in Nepal. However, a successful implementation of ecological sanitation technologies and optimal use of the technology depends on user adaption and preference in order to achieve this. The village of Darechowk in Nepal has a goal of becoming “Eco-san Model Village” and is acknowledged as an example of successful implementation of ecological sanitation. If Darechowk is to become a standard model for implementation of eco-san toilets and will be replicated in other parts of the country, a performance evaluation is needed from a user perspective to identify if this technology is used properly and how it can be improved. This thesis investigates factors affecting optimal use and adaption of the implemented eco-san toilets in Darechowk. It takes on a user perspective with emphasis on extent of user friendliness, social acceptance and economic and health benefits for the surveyed population. 36 semi-structured interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted during a fieldwork in Darechowk from December 2013 to March 2014. The findings show that the users have many challenges regarding operation and maintenance such as blockage in the urine pipe and inconvenience with urine collection due to lack of proper equipment. This in turn leads to discontinuance in urine collection and limits the economic benefits since the collection is not maximized and use of chemical fertilizer is still a practice. Social acceptance of the technology has proven to rely heavily on local initiatives and voluntary work with promotion and sanitation related activities. This has generated a sense of responsibility among the population towards keeping the village open defecation free. However, further knowledge and continual training regarding spread of disease and proper handling of urine is needed for the population to fully accept the sanitation system. The surveyed population expressed openness towards using human faeces as fertilizer. This gives the opportunity to modify the existing system towards urine diverting dry toilet with the goal of also reusing faeces as fertilizer. The overall recommendation is to provide more comprehensive training in operation and maintenance and handling of urine in order to achieve optimal use and adaption of the sanitation system in Darechowk.