Toxicity of 2-(nitroamino)ethanol and dimethylnitramine exposed to plants and microorganisms
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- Master's theses (IPM) 
Abstract Global warming is becoming one of the largest threats to the planet earth. The main cause of this problem is the emission of greenhouse gases from fossil. To minimize it the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) has urged to decrease global greenhouse gas emissions by 50 to 85 percent (Aarrestad & Gjershaug 2009). Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is proposed to be one of the best ways to reduce the impact of CO2 emissions (Kristoffersen et al. 2008). But another concern of amine emission to the environment through Leakage and waste from the Carbon Capture and Storage has been raised proved (Aarrestad & Gjershaug 2009; Knudsen et al. 2009). The degradation products of amines, like amides and nitrosamine are known to be carcinogenic and mutagenic to animals. Nitramines are also suspected to be toxic but not well studied. Their toxicity effect to terrestrial organisms also is not studied. Therefore this study conducted to fill the gap of knowledge of their toxicity effect to terrestrial organisms through characterizing the mode of action, determining toxic potency, species sensitivity and vulnerability at their different life stage and determining if the effect is likely to occur under realistic exposure scenarios. To answer these objectives we conducted an experiment by exposing amines to two plant species (Helianthus annuus and Lolium multiflorum) and microorganisms with dimethylnitramine and 2-(nitroamino) ethanol through soil matrix. These experiments have been conducted according to the OECD guidelines No.208 and 227 for the plants (OECD 2006a; OECD 2006b) and OECD guidelines No.216 and 217 for microorganisms (OECD 2000a; OECD 2000b). From the seedling emergence and growth test, concentrations of 0.1- 94µmol/kg 2NAE were non-toxic to the two plant species during their growth stage. Seedling emergence was completely inhibited by 2NAE at concentrations of ≥ 942µmol/kg (100mg/kg) in both species. The weight of L multiflorum (fig. 6A) was about 50% of the control at 118 µmol/kg of 2NAE, whereas 471µmol/kg 2NAE 95% inhibited growth of L. multiflorum. In a similar manner, growth of Helianthus annuus was reduced by 50% at 118 µmol/kg and complete growth inhibition was observed at 942µmol/kg (100mg/kg). But with plant vegetative vigour test and the microbial carbon and nitrogen transformation tests, both chemicals had positive effect. Both plant species had similar response for both compounds in the plant vegetative and vigour test with LOEC of 943 and 1110µmol/kg of 2NAE and DMNA respectively. The microbial carbon and nitrogen transformation were also stimulated starting from 1110µmol /kg of both compounds. The rough calculation of risk quotient on the observed adverse effect of 2NAE was less than 1. Therefore these compounds are not environmentally risky.
It is 60 credit Master thesis